Legg surname genetic testing and Matriline test results.

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Legg Surname genetic testing

There are many Legg's throughout the world, what is not known is to what extent they share a common male ancestor, as convential records only go back so far. Now an easy mechanism (by Y chromosome genetic testing) is available to answer this question. I have had my 'Y' chromsome tested, and invite all other male Legg visitors who have done same to compare results. I can compare directly against those who have taken either the Oxford Ancestor's test or the Family Tree DNA test, and partially against other testing companies. Contact: gjlegg@hotmail.com .

From the Oxford Ancestors Y line test results:
"on balance, the chances are that your distant paternal ancestors were drawn from the original Celtic inhabitants of Britain and Ireland".

(For an explanation of Y line testing below).
Recent (2017) studies indicate that the original British Neolitic male population was substantially replaced in the mid bronze age by steppe originated clans who were later culturally acclimitsed to the "bell breaker" culture. It is not known whether these male dominated immigrants when reachign Britain spoke an ancient IndoEuropean language or a Bell breaker language (originally widely sptread in Wetern Europe, but now confined to Basque), althoug I would estimate the former based on some later cultural turnover in much of leadership to Celtic cultures.


I have also taken the Oxford Ancestors matriline test - this covers the descent through the maternal line exclusively, and is much coarser than the 'Y' line test. See below for explanations and results.


For information on Ancestry of the Isles of Scilly "Legg's" and for Descendants of the Isles of Scilly "Legg's".

Explanation of Y line testing:

This explanation is courtesy of Paul Cuni.

From elementary genetics we learn that the 23rd chromosome is the "sex" determining chromosome. Males have both an "X" and a "Y" 23rd chromosome, but females only carry a "X" for their 23rd chromosome. The human egg becomes a female embryo if the male sperm carries an X-chromosome and a male embryo when the sperm has a Y-chromosome. Thus the Y-chromosome is passed down from generation to generation only through the male line. You might want to read an article about the Y-chromosome.

Several recent projects have reported on the use of the Y chromosome to trace and analyze surnames. Reuters issued a news release in early 2000 entitled, "Gene test helps scientist trace family names". In the article, Bryan Sykes of Oxford University was able to demonstrate, using DNA test results from a random sampling of 250 men with the Sykes surname, that they came from a common ancestor. Another fairly famous case involves the question as to whether or not President Thomas Jefferson fathered any slave children by Sally Hemings. The results clearly showed that one of her sons had a Jefferson Y chromosome, either from Thomas or one of his near relatives. A third study involves Jewish men who are kohanim, a Hebrew word literally meaning "priests". During the time of the First and Second Temples and up until the latter's destruction in 70 AD, the kohanim were responsible for performing elaborate rituals of animal sacrifices and grain offerings. Based on a study of 306 Jewish men in Israel, Canada and England, the researchers discovered that the 106 Jews who had identified themselves as kohanim shared genetic markers in their Y-chromosomes that members of the general Jewish population did not.

Thus, it has been demonstrated that DNA tests of the male Y-chromosome can be used to trace the descendants of a particular man through many generations. See Alan Savin's short article Introduction to Genetic Genealogy as well as two excellent articles called "Genetics and Genealogy" by Kevin Duerinck and "The Y-Chromosome in the Study of Human Evolution, Migration and Prehistory" by Neil Bradman and Mark Thomas.

For a comprehensive explanation see Chris Pomery's family history DNA portal

Other useful sites for Y-line testing information:


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Matriline (female descent) test results.

These results are applicable to anyone descended through the same maternal lines as Graeme Legg, i.e. a child of Dorothy Grifffin, Mary Beggs, Margaret Harney, Sarah Dowling, Barbara Kennedy etc, or anyone descended from same via a continuous maternal line. (See ancestors file.) (Full technical details are listed below.)

The detailed mtDNA HVR1 sequence mutations for Graeme Legg are: 16223[T] 16292[T] 16311[C]. Technically this is from Halogroup W The defining sequence of halogroup W are 16223 & 16292. The third marker from above (16311) represents Graeme's particular offshoot from halogroup W. A full graph of the relationship between major halogroups is available at http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/~vincent/images/skeleton07-08-02.jpg, while this Macaulay site also gives a reference list of a number of papers summarising the present state of the art in Matriline testing. The specific numbers identified above represent the diferences from the base case (CRS or Cambridge reference sequence) which coresponds to the base "Helena" case.

More information about Haplogroup W from Family Tree DNA:

Haplogroup W is derived from the N super-haplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe. For more info about haplogroup W: What is Haplogroup W and Where did Haplogroup W originate


Matriline test for younger children:

These results are applicable to anyone descended through the same maternal lines as Ethiopia Sevellina.
The younger children are descended from haplogroup R1, sequence 16172C, 16278T, 16311C, 16519C.

From Family Tree DNA:

R1  Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.

Emerging from superhaplogroup N, haplogroup R has also been called a superhaplogroup on the basis of its pan-Eurasian distribution, and the fact that it gives rise to many of the major haplogroups distributed across Europe, Asia, and the New World. Haplogroup R dates to approximately 65,000 years ago, a time of key population history events in the peopling of the globe by modern humans. Future work will further document the historical distribution of this haplogroup and closely related lineages within the R cluster


Matriline test for older children

These results are applicable to anyone descended through the same maternal lines as Eusebia Pinca. The older children are descended from halogroup D, sequence 223T, 295T, 362C. (233 & 362 being the main markers from halogroup D, 295 being the subgroup).

Maps showing the migration routes of early humans 1. The migration route of early humans 2. the Mitomap site - a human mitochrondial database.


Some more relevant links:


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